gmosinfoifu -- Description of reduction scripts for GMOS IFU data
The GMOS package contains tasks for processing GMOS imaging, long-slit, multi-object and integral field spectroscopy data. The specifics of the individual tasks can be found in their help files. This document describes the common features of the tasks for the Integral Field Units (IFUs).
The tasks are designed to provide a fairly complete and flexible reduction for the purpose of assessing data quality at the time of observation. Real-time reductions may not be optimal for a particular science application. The GMOS package scripts can be optimized for a particular application using the hidden parameters to achieve the best possible results.
The tasks produce logfiles of the performed processing steps. The name of the logfile may be set in each individual task, or at the package level by setting gmos.logfile.
The tasks add header keywords to the output images. These header keywords contain valuable information about the performed processing steps and the values of the critical parameters that were used.
All GMOS images are written as multi-extension FITS (MEF) files. Raw data can have up to six unnamed extensions. Most of the header information is written to the primary header unit  (PHU). After being processed with GPREPARE, GMOS data extensions will be named as described in GMOSINFO.
It is recommended to use imtype="fits". This is set automatically when loading the GEMINI package.
GMOS IFU reductions fundamentally depend on having the proper Mask Definition File (MDF) at the beginning of the process. The MDF contains information about the relative lenslet positions and, more importantly, about the locations of spectra that are not extractable by GFEXTRACT. During commissioning a standard set of MDFs were produced for each major mode and are listed below.
IFU FPU MDF in gmos$data/ -------------------------------------------------- GMOS-N 2 Slits gnifu_slits_mdf.fits Left Slit (blue) gnifu_slitb_mdf.fits Right Slit (red) gnifu_slitr_mdf.fits
GMOS-S - data taken in November 2003 2 Slits gsifu_slits_mdf_2003nov.fits Left Slit (blue) gsifu_slitb_mdf_2003nov.fits Right Slit (red) gsifu_slitr_mdf_2003nov.fits
GMOS-S - data taken February 2004 and later 2 Slits gsifu_slits_mdf.fits Left Slit (blue) gsifu_slitb_mdf.fits Right Slit (red) gsifu_slitr_mdf.fits
N&S 2 Slits gsifu_ns_slits_mdf.fits N&S Left Slit (blue) gsifu_ns_slitb_mdf.fits N&S Right Slit (red) gsifu_ns_slitr_mdf.fits --------------------------------------------------
In most cases one should be able to use the default MDFs, therefore GFREDUCE will pick the appropriate MDF to use if slits is set to the correct slit(s), fl_nodshuffle reflects whether a nod&shuffle slit mask was used, and mdffile="default". When reducing GMOS-S data taken during November 2003 mdffile will have to be given explicitly.
Unfortunately, the standard MDFs sometimes need to be modified for specific datasets in which more than the standard number of spectra cannot be extracted. For example, it sometimes happens that flexure of the instrument results in additional spectra being lost at the top of the CCD array. In these cases the standard MDF for the configuration used should be copied to the working directory and modified there. It is important to look at the flat carefully to identify any additional missing lenslets/fibers and flag them as bad. Spectra that cannot be extracted have BEAM=-1 in the MDF and GFEXTRACT uses the MDF to create an aperture id table for APALL. The best way to identify which spectra are not being identified is to run GFEXTRACT in interactive mode. The left-most spectrum of each block should have a '1' in the last digit of the aperture ID (e.g. 101, 251, 701, ...) and there shouldn't be any fibers with 2 aperture IDs. Once the missing spectra have been identified their BEAM values in the MDF can modified using TCALC or TEDIT.
In previous Gemini IRAF package releases (1.5 and earlier) there were specific GFDISPLAY configuration files associated with each MDF and making configuration files for a new MDF was very difficult. Starting in version 1.6 of the Gemini IRAF package the information needed for GFDISPLAY is included in the MDF and no special configuration files are needed. For more information see the help page for GFDISPLAY.
A schematic of the GMOS IFU instrument coordinate systems that are used in the MDFs is given below. The coordinates are approximate relative coordinates and do not account for slight rotations of the fields or the exact field separations. A distance of 60 arcseconds was assumed for the distance between the centers of the two fields. This is accurate to within about 1 arcseconds.
.nf GMOS-N (65.0,4.9) |---| (6.8,4.9) |-------| | | | | | | | | | | | | |---| (61.7,0) |-------| (0,0) GMOS-S (65.0,4.9) |-------| (3.3,4.9) |---| | | | | | | | | | | | | |-------| (58.3,0) |---| (0,0)
GMOSINFO gives the description of the data format and naming conventions for the raw and GPREPAREd data.
After processing with GFREDUCE the data format will have changed according to the processing steps chosen. The tables below give the processing flags and the output data format in terms of the number of science extensions (SCI) and the MDF extension. The MDF extension contains the binary MDF. The flags are listed in the order the reflects the reduction steps. The output format of one step is the input format to the next step. The first table is for data taken with the IFU in 1-slit mode, while the second table is for data taken with the IFU in 2-slit mode. For N&S reductions there is no SKY extension since the sky is subtracted using GNSSKYSUB or GNSCOMBINE before the extraction step and a mean sky spectrum is not produced.
IFU 1-slit data -------------------------------------------------- Processing flag Output format -------------------------------------------------- none Raw data: 3 image extensions fl_addmdf+ 3 SCI 1 MDF fl_over+ 3 SCI 1 MDF fl_bias+ 3 SCI 1 MDF fl_crrej+ 3 SCI 1 MDF fl_extract+ 1 SCI 1 MDF fl_gsappwave+ 1 SCI 1 MDF fl_wavtran+ 1 SCI 1 MDF fl_skysub+ 1 SCI 1 MDF 1 SKY fl_fluxcal+ 1 SCI 1 MDF 1 SKY --------------------------------------------------
IFU 2-slit data -------------------------------------------------- Processing flag Output format -------------------------------------------------- none Raw data: 3 image extensions fl_addmdf+ 3 SCI 1 MDF fl_over+ 3 SCI 1 MDF fl_bias+ 3 SCI 1 MDF fl_crrej+ 3 SCI 1 MDF fl_extract+ 2 SCI 1 MDF fl_gsappwave+ 2 SCI 1 MDF fl_wavtran+ 1 SCI 1 MDF fl_skysub+ 1 SCI 1 MDF 1 SKY fl_fluxcal+ 1 SCI 1 MDF 1 SKY --------------------------------------------------
The output images from GFCUBE contain one 3-D science extension. This format is in the following referred to as a "datacube".
The output images from GFQUICK and GFDISPLAY are simple 2-D FITS images.
- GFQUICK - Produce a rapid image reconstruction of IFU observations
GFQUICK produces a crude reconstructed image for use during object acquisition. The input image must be a full-frame read out in 3-amp mode, and can either be a undispersed image taken through the IFU, or an dispersed observation taken with the IFU and a grating. In the latter case, the object needs to have a strong continuum in order to be visible in this crude reconstruction.
- GFREDUCE - Process IFU spectroscopic images
GFREDUCE applies processing steps to GMOS IFU images. The possible processing steps are: pre-processing (GPREPARE), overscan subtraction, trimming, bias subtraction, cosmic ray rejection, extraction, flat fielding, wavelength calibration, sky subtraction, and flux calibration. If requested GFREDUCE calls GIREDUCE to create variance and data quality frames. This task is the primary task used for reducing IFU data.
- GFDISPLAY - Reconstruct and display images from IFU observations
GFDISPLAY uses the GEMTOOLS.LDISPLAY task to reconstruct and display GMOS IFU "white light" images. Selecting a lenslet in the reconstructed image causes the spectrum to be plotted in the graphics window. Also, the wavelength range for the image reconstruction can be selected in order to produce images of emission lines, etc. See also GFCUBE for a different possibility of analysing the data.
- GFRESPONSE - Produce relative fiber throughputs from GMOS IFU flatfields
GFRESPONSE produces flat fields that correct for pixel-pixel variations in the wavelength direction and for relative fiber throughputs. The input image should be an extracted GCAL flat. A twilight flat can be used to correct illumination patterns in the GCAL flat.
- GFEXTRACT - Extract IFU observations to 1-D spectra
GFEXTRACT locates and extracts IFU spectra to 1-D spectra and applies the flat field (fiber throughput) correction from GFRESPONSE. The three chips are joined into a single image with GMOSAIC, if not done already, and the chip gaps are bridged by interpolating the spectra. The spectra are then summed over a region +/-2.5 pixels on either side of the trace. This task is normally called by GFREDUCE.
- GSCRREJ - Clean spectroscopic data for cosmic ray hits
GSCRREJ cleans spectroscopic data for cosmic ray hits by fitting each line of an image with a high order function. Then residuals (cosmic ray hits) that are narrower than the expected instrumental line width are replaces with the fitted value. The method is useful for removing cosmic ray hits from single exposures. GSCRREJ calls the hidden task GSCRMASK in order to make the mask of the cosmic ray hits. For IFU data, GSCRREJ is normally called by GFREDUCE.
- GSAPPWAVE - Add approximate wavelength calibration to the headers
GSAPPWAVE provides a quick wavelength solution for GMOS spectroscopic images. The wavelength solution is based on the filter, grating and central wavelength information found in the header. The task is for quick reduction purposes and to provide a starting point for the wavelength calibration derived by GSWAVELENGTH. For IFU data, GSAPPWAVE is normally called by GFREDUCE.
- GSWAVELENGTH - Establish wavelength calibration for GMOS spectra
GSWAVELENGTH (automatically) determines the wavelength solution for GMOS calibration lamp images starting with the initial value supplied by GSAPPWAVE.
- GFTRANSFORM - Wavelength calibrate GMOS IFU spectra
GFTRANSFORM applies the wavelength solution found by GSWAVELENGTH to GMOS IFU spectra. For IFU data taken in 2-slit mode, the spectra from the two slits are merged into one science extension and all spectra have the same wavelength calibration. GFTRANSFORM is normally called by GFREDUCE. If run alone, the input images have to be GFREDUCEd with the preceding processing steps.
- GFSKYSUB - Sky subtract GMOS IFU spectra
GFSKYSUB averages spectra in the defined sky region and subtracts the result from all spectra in the input image. Regions are defined as in GFAPSUM. The sky spectrum is kept in an extension named "SKY" in the output image.
- GFAPSUM - Combine all IFU spectra in a spatial region
GFAPSUM either sums or averages all spectra in a specified spatial region and produces a single one-dimensional spectrum. Fractional flux is not calculated, that is, if the center of a lenslet falls in the selected region, then all the flux from the lenslet is included.
- GFCUBE - Resample GFREDUCEd IFU spectra into a 3-D datacube
GFCUBE resamples a GFREDUCEd IFU spectrum into a 3-D datacube. The output image from GFCUBE is a MEF file with one image extension. The image extension is 3-dimensional and not uniformly gridded in [x,y,lambda]. The datacube is useful for visualization, datacube merging, as well as analysis. The help page for GFCUBE describes in more detail how to plot the spectra and visualize the content of the cube using standard IRAF tasks.
- GSSTANDARD - Establish spectrophotometric calibration for GMOS spectra
GSSTANDARD calls the tasks STANDARD and SENSFUNC in NOAO.IMRED.SPECRED to determine the detector sensitivity function based on observations of standard stars. For IFU data, the input spectra are assumed to have been processed with GFREDUCE, including the wavelength calibration (GFTRANSFORM) and the sky subtraction (GFSKYSUB).
- GSCALIBRATE - Apply flux calibration and extinction correction
GSCALIBRATE applies the flux calibration derived with GSSTANDARD, and may also be used to apply a correction for the extinction.
For typical reductions the user will need appropriate flat fields (GCAL and twilight), arc calibration images, and science images. Observations of spectrophotometric standard stars may also be required.
1. Use GPREPARE to update the raw data headers and attach the mask definition file (MDF) as a binary table. The other tasks will call GPREPARE as needed if this step is omitted. GPREPARE will also create and attach data quality and variance planes if requested (fl_vardq=yes).
2. Use GBIAS to create a bias image.
3. Use GFREDUCE to trim, bias-subtract, and extract the GCAL flats and twilight flats. The traces of the GCAL flat are used as references for extracting the twilight flats, arcs, and science images. Make the final flat field with GFRESPONSE.
4. Use GFREDUCE to trim, overscan-subtract, and extract the arcs. Because the arcs are usually taken in fast read and only slow read bias images are available, it is recommended to overscan subtract the arcs. Use GSWAVELENGTH to establish an accurate wavelength calibration.
5. Use GFREDUCE to reduce the observations of the science target. The steps include trimming, subtraction of the bias image, cleaning for cosmic ray hits, mosaicing the data from the separate CCDs together, division by the flat field, interpolation across the detector gaps in the GMOSAICd image, extraction of the spectra (using the GCAL flat as a reference), wavelength calibration, and subtraction of the sky.
6. Use GFCUBE to resample the reduced IFU images onto a 3-D datacube.
GSSTANDARD can be used to establish a sensitivity function from GFREDUCEd and GFAPSUMed standard star spectral data. The output from GSSTANDARD can be used by GSCALIBRATE (along or via GFREDUCE) to flux calibrate extracted spectra.
Example reduction scripts are available, see GMOSEXAMPLES.
The tasks in the GMOS package have been tested with up to three extension MEF files.
The tasks in the GMOS package are designed to operate on MEF FITS images only that have been processed using GPREPARE. GPREPARE will not run on data from instruments other than GMOS. The GMOS tasks will not run on simple FITS files.
Input image names should in general not contain directory paths as not all tasks have been tested in this mode.
Improvements to the (previously semi-functional) variance and data quality propagation in the GMOS package have undergone limited testing; the accuracy of the results should still be verified at each step by the scientist, particularly for spectroscopic data reduction tasks.
gmosinfo, gmosinfospec, gmosexamples, gfapsum, gfdisplay, gsappwave, gswavelength, gftransform, gfskysub, gsstandard, gscalibrate, gscrrej, gfextract, gprepare, gbias, gmosaic, gfcube